21 May  2010
    Service manual



   Error searching list
Start-up or communication error Positioning errors Crash Crystal axis too long or too short Shutter does not open HT falls off when using the shutter

The shutter does not close fast enough so the safety electronics detects an open shutter while it should be closed. It is indicated by a red computer led on the FR586 or shutter message on the FR590. A service men must readjust the shutter or probably replace the shutter coil. It is possible to remain working temporary by opening the shutter with the pocket terminal before the measurement, so it will be open continuously. Because the shutter is always open this is only allowed when all safeties are active, like the enclosure safety. The beam open lamp must not flash.

Attenuator does not work

Intensity problems Program stops after HV-off Cannot find (strong) reflections during Search Intensities skipped: copied previous data

When for some reason a reflection could not be measured, the data of previous reflection is put into the log file.

Program error messages. see paper User Manual chapter VI-G, page 19. Small selection: Computer problems
   Technical data
Shutter circuit overview

HV-on circuit overview

Motor/encoder mechanical overview

Crash/collision circuit

Potmeter test, TEST ALL

This test checks the servo system, mostly the behaviour of the encoder potmeters.

Phi coarse: Zero shifted. See Adjust
33                            32111
015                           06340
656                          725067

Motor encoder board

To change opto couplers (type HP 2531). When changing it is advised it mount them on a IC socket


   Software commands (selection)
Program and general
CAD4  #L CAD4  #L CAD4  #L Start CAD4 program # (mostly 0) L = forced loading
EXIT, QUIT EXIT EXITXX Exit program in the normal way
Ctrl-C, Ctrl-C CTR-Y Ctrl-Z Abort program
not needed kill  % 
abort_cad4  #
Remove residual programs after abort (### = pid number of CAD* programs)
Q With inputs: quit command
/ With inputs: default
@name Starts a command file name.DAT in [CAD4.DATAn]
LOG Makes a new log file in [CAD4.DATAn], default : CD4CA4.LOG
Output to terminal / printer serial line (CT port) enabled or disabled
CONSW Switches to in/output on terminal serial line (CT port) (or back to host computer when used on terminal)

Crystal file
GONCON, FCRYST, Y, name, Y, Q, LK, 1, 25 Makes a new crystal file with max. 25 reflections (then do SEARCH). See User manual page 9/2
LO #1 #2 Shows the list of reflections from reflection #1 to #2. Output : 
n - h - k - l - * - Theta - Phi - **s - attenuator/speed - width (3*FWHM in º) - counts
LH, h k l Adds a reflection to the list (then do SETANG to measure)
LK, #1 #2 Removes reflections #1 to #2 from the list.
LCA, #, A, Y Sets a reflection "unmeasured" (then do SETANG to measure).
RO Displays : data and orientation of the crystal.
WO Displays : X-ray tube, Lam1 and Lam2 (wavelength of alpha1 and alpha2, depending on X-ray tube) and attenuator filter factor.
WI For input the : X-ray tube (Mo, Cu, Ag, Cr, Co, Fe) and attenuator filter factor.

Measure, position
SETANG Measures the "unmeasured" reflections in the list. Output : 
n - * - Theta/K - S - Phi/K - Omega/K - Kappa/K - Phi/E - Omega/E - Chie/E - Shifts.....
SCAN, axes, SA, N, R Scan axes ( = P, T, O, K). SA = angle (º), N = speed (º/min = N/16.48), R = ratio of two axes (1-6).
SCAN, N, time Intensity / time measurement without moving axes (multiple measurements). Switch = 0001 : only one measurement.
SEARCH, T K P, SP DV Search new reflections for the empty places in the crystal file. See SEARCH
T C P = Phi scan on position Theta and Chie. 
SP = Scan speed 1 - 12 (x16.48 º/min). 
DF = Discrimination factor peak/background. 
SETPAR, swoma swomb diafra diafrb scanr qfact pfract Scan parameters. See Measure crystal
swoma, swomb = the omega scan is swoma + swomb * tan(Theta) 
diafra, diafrb = the aperture is diafra + diafrb * tan(Theta) 
scanr = scan ratio 
qfact = Quality factor 
pfract = Poisson distribution factor 

Output : SETPAR with input / / / / / /.

LG, n, .P
KP, Theta Phi Omega Kappa
EP, Theta Phi Omega Chie
Position goniometer axes 

Output : position

on reflex n 
in Kappa 
in Eulerian 
in Kappa 
in Eulerian
SAP, n Position of the aperture. Default : 9 mm / open hole. n = mm
Position to slit  positive skew 
negative skew 
Attenuator in 
Shutter  Open 

Standard output of a measurement (paper User Manual chapter XI-E, page 29)

Type 0
type list nr
code Theta
NPI = Scan speed 
16.48/NPI º/min 
- = with attenuator
Scan width Netto intensity
default example: 1 -3 -1 12 N***** 3

Type 1
type reflection
H K L code Psi Npi = Scan speed 
16.48/Npi º/min 
- = with attenuator
Background intensity
sum profile 1-16
sum profile 17-80
type 3
background intensity
som profile 81-96
? ?
number of characters:  2 6 5 5 5 7 7 4 6 7 6
default example: 1 1450 -3 -1 12 N***** .00 3 14 2424 8 793.3 16.7

Type 2
type reflection
Width Omega scan
Cumulative X-ray time
number of characters:  2 6 8 9 9 9 7 7 3
default example: 2 1450

Typ 3-10
type reflection
96 dumps of intensities of the scan
columns with intensity vertical in cnt
default example: 2 1450          3211133

Code reflection status (see paper User Manual, chapter XI-E, page 30)


It is also possible to work with the basic (old) CAD4 program:

Express commands and keys functions:
EXP 0 Startup Express
EXIT Normal exit
3x Ctrl-C Abort
LOG/CAD4/NEW filename Makes a new CAD4 log-file. Default: [EXPRESS.DATA#]CD4XB#.LOG
PF1 Cancel. Exit subwindow:
PF2 Help
PF3 Select expanded window
 - Erase window
 , Toggle window
 . Temporary to VMS. Return with EXP 0
 enter Cancel/confirm goniometer errors
 1-8 Window position
 5 Errors window
ctrl-R Rewrite screen
ctrl-B Abort goniometer command

   Pocket terminal
Pocket terminal, normal use
Shifts 32 character data in the 8 character window (use when you have "lost" the data). After start-up : always 5 times SL4 to get the right readout position.
Display the intensity absolute (ABS) or relative to the first measurement in percentage steps (REL).
+xx.xx MOVE axis Moves axis to position +xx.xxº
> n MOVE axis Rotate axis with speed n (1-9) in positive (>) or negative (<) direction. Pressing another speed number or (< n) or (> n) during rotation immediately changes the speed or direction.
> 3 MOVE axis CRASH Position after a crash
SWITCH Switch register. To change : xxxx MOVE SWITCH
0001 = goniometer stops after the current movement 
0000 = repeats movements 

Extra output on the CAD4 CT port (not the host), see User manual page 6/13-17: 
2000 = Profiles of centring routine , 4000 = Measured reflection, 0400 = Search data

Stop All functions 
Move functions 
Input and display 
Till pause is pressed again.

Pocket terminal, service use
SPEC, axis 
SPEC, MOVE, axis
Encoder position (potmeter) of the chosen axis. Output in octal value 
- Choice : C/F = coarse/fine, D/S = Cosine/Sine 
- Default after clear : course and cosine
Coarse and fine. Choose C/F 
Potmeter. Choose C/F and D/S
, MOVE, 5
, MOVE, 5
SPEC, axis, degree, MOVE, 5
Potmeter (servo) test, course and fine. Course and fine 
Only course 
Over degree of axis from present position
address, MOVE, 0 Data read
HV, LL, WD Detector HV voltage, Lower Level and Window. 
xxx MOVE HV. Change HV. this will not be saved in GONCON ! 
> n MOVE HV/LL/WD Scans HV, LL or WD with speed n.
xxx MOVE PAUSE Set CAD4 CT port (not the host !) to xxxx baud . This is not saved in GONCON!

Program error messages

Program error messages
COLLIS  Predicted collision
CO RUNS  Tried to operate the goniometer by pocket terminal while Host computer is running a goniometer action (it was under target microprocessor control )
CRASH The goniometer is in a crash position
INP ERR The entered input is not valid

   Measuring crystals

For testing, use the test crystal.

Measuring a crystal

Scan parameters setting with SETPAR.


Connections, fuses, boards

   Maintenance and service

This chapter contains only small parts or changes of the paper manual.


X-ray optics alignment with a sealed tube

The alignment is the same as with the MACH3, with the exception:

There are now standard absorbers which makes it possible to check if the intensity is all right with the EFFIC measurement.

Det. error : for small adjustments and only when really needed, adjust the detector position with the three Allen screws on both sides of the detector stand. Direction:

Detector HV adjustment
Encoder ADC zero/max

Encoder adjustment

Phi coarse, zero adjustment (small adjustment if TEST ALL shows a drift)

Open the goniometer
Omega cable change

Change of a cable running inside the omega axis for Phi and Kappa. This can only be done with a new or a revised old CAD4. The holes of an old CAD4 are too small to mount a new cable. Dismount the microscope support and you will see the cables:

Change of the Phi cable:

Phi unit (dis)mount

For returning the Phi encoder/motor unit for repair it must be remounted:

Shutter dismount/remount
Upgrade to Express, Linux or PCDOS software

When upgrading to Express or Linux software and having a LSI 11 processor board (M7270), some changes must be made : See Product Change Note 37 (ask Service).

When using VAX or PCDOS no change is needed.

With a Falcon (M8063) or Falcon+ (M7676) processor board no change is needed.

+5V power adjustment

The +5V power supply is the large supply located in the left part of the Interface behind the panel with the on/off switch.

Encoder unit replacement

A single encoder can only be changed by an experienced servicemen.

A complete (encoder)unit is more easy to replace, but still needs some experience:

Theta, Omega, Kappa

Another, more complicated description can be found in an instruction (1990, see PCN-list):


Program  command  file (n = default 0)
GONCON, CASPAR or GCONST, O = output, M = modify, S = Save, Q = Quit, I = input (asks to input all parameters) c : \CAD4\DATAn\ GONCAn.PAR 
~/DATAn/ GONCAn.PAR (~ = login dir) 
VMS - EXPRESS Goniometer constants  [EXPRESS.DATAn] GONXAn.PAR

Command code Default
CON1 approx. 0.5868241 sin²(alpha)     (Factory installed, alpha = Kappa = approx. 50º)
CON2 approx. 0.6427876 cos(alpha)      (Factory installed, alpha = Kappa = approx. 50º)
CON3 approx. 0.0001787 cos²(89) * sin²(alpha)      (Factory installed, alpha = Kappa = approx. 50º)
THPOS 77.50 Theta positive software limit in º
THNEG -49.00 Theta negative software limit in º
PDIST 78.50 Distance crystal - Polaroid in mm
RADIUS 173. Distance crystal - aperture/slits disk in mm
SLIT 4.0 Manual horizontal slit in mm
APMAX 5.9 Aperture vertical maximum in mm
APMIN 1.3 Aperture vertical minimum in mm
MAXVAR xxxx Encoder position of maximum aperture 
MINVAR xxxx Encoder position of minimum aperture 
UPPERH xxxx Encoder position of upper hemisphere hole
LOWERH xxxx Encoder position of lower hemisphere hole
NEGSL xxxx Encoder position of skew slit, negative
POSSL xxxx Encoder position of skew slit, positive
VSLIT xxxx Encoder position of vertical slit
HSLIT xxxx Encoder position of horizontal slit
HOLE xxxx Encoder position of open hole
Attenuator filter factor and X-ray tube: see command WO / WI

Command code Default
HV approx. 576 Detector high voltage in volt : see Adjustments
LL 200 (Mo) or 100 (Cu) Detector low level 
WD 500 (Mo) or 600 (Cu) Detector window (LL + WD = max. 1275)
DT 0.8300 Dead time in us
BR 9600 CT port (Terminal) baudrate (not Host)
PA 2. Axes positioning accuracy (in encoder digitization steps). A positioning command only finishes when the end position (or end of a scan) is within this value.
MT 24 Motor gain for Theta
MP 26 Motor gain for Phi
MO 24 Motor gain for Omega
MK 24 Motor gain for Kappa
MD 24 Motor gain for Dial
FL NO Phi limit switch present
FL NO Special collar software present
FL NO Cryostat boundary software wanted
FL NO Turbo goniometer
FL NO Rotating anode. If NO: then a remote controlled HV generator is expected, like the FR590.
EM 60.0 HV generator emission trigger level in mA (normally not used)

  LED's and switches

Mains Run
+5V (digital)  Indication of the halt switch (not indication of processor running)

RS232 communication lines
flash flash flash Flash when receiving data
on flash flash Flash when transmitting data
Terminal Host 

Mains  Power
Run To stop/start the target program. Don't use this. Use mains to start-up. Normal working position : down.


Angle, DX Mechanical readout
coarse fine
Phi  ±180° 360 °/rev, 2 °/div 1 °/rev, 0.01 °/div
±241° (for instance crystal oven)
Kappa ±180° 360 °/rev, 1 °/div 1 °/rev, 0.01 °/div
±60° (for instance helium cryostat)
Omega ±250°, 0° is under the X-ray source counter, 1 °/step 1 °/rev, 0.01 °/div
Theta, with sealed tube -50°, +77° , 0° is at the X-ray source counter, 1 °/step 1 °/rev, 0.01 °/div
Speed Standard Turbo
Scan (Phi, Kappa, Omega, Theta)  max. 16.5 °/min  max. 16.5 °/min
Positioning max. 360 °/min max. 1000 °/min
Phi  ±0.015°
Kappa, Omega, 2Theta ±0.010°
Reproducibility ±0.0025°
Resolution 0.0007°
Backlash, Phi, Kappa none
Sphere of confusion R = 10 µm
Microscope 75 x, grid 0.036 mm/div, mounted on Omega +123° and +45°
Second microscope (option)  125 x, mounted at +90 ° and 0 °


X-ray optics
X-ray source
Power maximum 60 kV, 300 mA
Crystal - focal point 216.5 mm
Beta filters
Open hole  beta/alpha = 13%
Cu 0.020 mm nickel, beta/alpha = 0.2%, alpha transmission 42%
Mo 0.108 mm zirconium, beta/alpha = 0.2%, alpha transmission 33%
Fe 0.016 mm manganese, beta/alpha = 0.2%, alpha transmission 47%
Monochromator, sealed tube fine focus : Graphite, 12 x 6 mm, 0 0 2 reflection, mosaic spread approx. 0.4°
Collimators, sealed tube
    Fine focus 
0.4 mm (1 ring), 0.8 mm (2 ring), 1.3 mm (3 ring)
    Normal focus 
0.8 mm (1 ring), 1.3 mm (2 ring) 
Dial, software control
0,2 mm slits +45° (Pos), -45° (Neg), vertical, horizontal
2 hemisphere horizontal
Aperture horizontal 1.3 - 5.9 mm and open hole 9 mm.
Reproducibility slits ±0.01 mm.
Crystal - slit 173 mm
Aperture vertical (manual)  1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm.
Attenuator Cu : 0.06 mm Nickel, typical attenuation, 14x 
Mo: 0.26 mm Zircon, typical attenuation, 14x
Beamstop Fine focus : 8 mm outside, inside Ø5.7 x 4 mm lead. 
Normal focus : 12 mm outside, inside Ø9.1 x 4 mm lead.
Collimators detector 2 mm, 5 mm.
Count rate  <50 kcps
Accuracy  <1%
Dark counts <0.1 cps
Scintillator  NaI(T1)
Absorption  Cu - Ag: 100%
HV adjustable -255 till -1020 V in 255 steps
Dead time  Automatic compensation
Extension detector arm (option)  Crystal - slit : 368 mm

Goniometer heads
Height  49.0 mm
Distance ring 14.96 mm
ECON head X, Y: ±1.5 mm Z: 8 mm
XYZ head (option) X, Y: ±2.5 mm Z: 8 mm
Eucentric head (option)  X, Y: ±2.5 mm Z: 3 mm angle: ±15° 

The shutter does not open, or is closed when: The X-ray high voltage is not switched on, or is switched off when: Safety override

The system is supplied with one override, which is only allowed to be used during technical maintenance (see safety rules).

Safety with rotating anode generator FR591

With a X-ray generator all safeties are handled by the generator, except the shutter safeties: collimator and beam stop.

Safety signals

With all lamps, excluded the green shutter-closed lamp, a defect lamp is detected and activates the safety.

Safety with power off

Safety demands that circuits are automatically in a safe position when they are out of order. So during power off, the goniometer Interface and the X-ray high voltage are switched off by the safeties.

Data line to Host RS232 : 50-38400 bd (the Interface determines with autobaud), 8 databits, 1 stop bit, odd parity. Hardware switchable to 20 mA loop.
Data line to pocket terminal  RS232 : 1200 bd , 7 databits, 1 stop bit, no parity. (switch on with CAPRT)
Data line to terminal/printer RS232 : 9600 bd (choice to 50 -38400 bd in CASPAR), 7 databits, 1 stop bit, odd parity. 
A printer or terminal can be connected but also a PC with Windows can act as a terminal with a terminal program which can be retrieved as a self extractable file
  • Extract the files in the directory you choose.
  • Start the program TERMINAL.EXE (windows program)
  • Load the settings with: File,  Open, cad4-ct.trm
  • The default port is com 1.  When you want to use another port, change it in: Settings, communications (this setting can be file/saved).
Crystal illumination  Supply 24 V, max. 80 mA, 2 W.
X-ray / HV generator  Hardware signals for shutter- and safety actions and a RS232 for software communication. 
Analog output Amplified analog counter signal. Ro = 50 Ohm
Rate meter Digital counter pulse and power supply for the Analog rate meter

Programmable IC's
Motor generator board IC25  600.25A For LSI-11
     0546.600 MOT1B For Falcon and later.  Can also be used in  older equipment
Radiation detection board.
IC23 602.23A
Encoder readout board IC19 605.19A Probably for LSI11
     0546.605 ENC3A For Falcon/Falcon+
IC5 605.05A For old version ADC
ENC4A Last version from 1984 for new version ADC (PCN 26) 
IC6 605.06A For old version ADC
ENC5A Last version from 1984 for new version ADC (PCN 26)
Personality module / QLC brd. IC1 
For LSI-11 (Does not work with DOS)
     0546.606/616 PMQ1C 
For Falcon, with all software
For Falcon+, Falcon, with all software
For LSI-11, with DOS and VMS
For Falcon and Falcon+: newer 4 kB type. With hardware change (see instruc. 15 May 1995)
For LSI-11: newer 4 kB. Needed for Linux/Express. This PROM is needed when using Linux/Expres with hardware change (see PCN 37)
IC3 606.03A For LSI-11
PMQ3B For Falcon
IC4 606.04A For LSI-11
Radiation detection board 
IC1 RAD2A Can be used in all equipment
Bus Interface  board IC4 BUS4A
     0546.604/614 IC12 604.12A For LSI-11
BUS1D For Falcon/Falcon+
IC40 606.40A
BUS8A For new version 0546.614. Can also be used in older equipment
IC42 BUS9A For Falcon/Falcon+